Platelet proteome and function in X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia and in silico comparisons with gray platelet syndrome

Daniel Bergemalm, Sofia Ramström, Caroline Kardeby, Kjell Hultenby, Anna Göthlin Eremo, Carina Sihlbom, Jörgen Bergström, Jan Palmblad, Maria Åström

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia (XLTT; OMIM 314050), caused by the mutation p.R216Q in exon 4 of the GATA1 gene, male hemizygous patients display macrothrombocytopenia, bleeding diathesis and a β-thalassemia trait. Herein, we describe findings in two unrelated Swedish XLTT families with a bleeding tendency exceeding what is expected from the thrombocytopenia. Blood tests revealed low P-PAI-1 and P-factor 5, and elevated S-thrombopoietin levels. Transmission electron microscopy showed diminished numbers of platelet α- and dense granules. The proteomes of isolated blood platelets from 5 male XLTT patients, compared to 5 gender- and age matched controls, were explored. Quantitative mass spectrometry showed alterations of 83 proteins (fold change ≥±1.2, q< .05). Of 46 downregulated proteins, 39 were previously reported to be associated with platelet granules. Reduced protein levels of PTGS1 and SLC35D3 were validated in megakaryocytes of XLTT bone marrow biopsies by immunohistochemistry. Platelet function testing by flow cytometry revealed low dense- and α-granule release and fibrinogen binding in response to ligation of receptors for ADP, the thrombin receptor PAR4 and the collagen receptor GPVI. Significant reductions of a number of α-granule proteins overlapped with a previous platelet proteomics investigation in the inherited macrothrombocytopenia gray platelet syndrome (GPS). In contrast, Ca2+ transporter proteins that facilitate dense granule release were downregulated in XLTT but upregulated in GPS. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed altered Coagulation System and Protein Ubiquitination pathways in the XLTT platelets. Collectively, the results revealed protein and functional alterations affecting platelet α- and dense granules in XLTT, probably contributing to bleeding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2947-2959
Number of pages13
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright (c) 2021 Ferrata Storti Foundation

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


  • Blood Platelets
  • Computer Simulation
  • Cytoplasmic Granules
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
  • Gray Platelet Syndrome/genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Proteome
  • Thalassemia
  • Thrombocytopenia


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