An interdisciplinary approach involving the production and engine testing of a fuel blend containing upgraded bio-oil and fossil-derived solvent has been investigated in this present study. First, a novel 3-stage process of solvent-assisted catalytic upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was used to obtain a fuel blend with nearly 18 vol% biofuel content. Upgrading reactions were carried out between 160 °C and 300 °C, with 10 bar hydrogen gas, using 5 wt% Pt/Al203 catalyst for each of the three stages, with the main conversion reactions occurring in the first stage. The upgrading process produced 21.8 wt% of hydrocarbon-rich biofuel on bio-oil basis, achieving a high degree of deoxygenation with only 0.19 wt% oxygen in the final product. This was followed by the study of its combustion and emission characteristics in a 3-cylinder diesel engine, using a 10 vol% biofuel content in kerosene. All relevant testing regimes for liquid fuels were carried out, with its combustion and emission characteristics showing superior or similar results to those of conventions kerosene and diesel. The tested biofuel blend showed 2 % increments in engine performance. Overall, this work represents a significant advancement in the production of green liquid hydrocarbon-rich fuels for transport and domestic uses.
|Number of pages||13|
|Early online date||13 Dec 2022|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar 2023|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2022, The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Funding: This work was supported by Innovate UK Energy Catalyst Round 7
Early Stage (Grant No 38286).
- Catalytic bio-oil upgrading
- Hydrocarbon biofuel
- Fuel blend