Reactive processing of polymers: effect of bifunctional and tri-functional comonomers on melt grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto polypropylene

Sahar Al-Malaika, Eddy Eddiyanto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Two reactive comonomers, divinyl benzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TRIS), were evaluated for their role in effecting the melt free radical grafting reaction of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene (PP). The characteristics of the GMA-grafting systems in the presence and absence of DVB or TRIS were examined and compared in terms of the yield of the grafting reaction and the extent of the main side reactions, namely homopolymerisation of GMA (poly-GMA) and polymer degradation, using different chemical compositions of the reactive systems and processing conditions. In the absence of the comonomers, i.e. in a conventional system, high initiator concentrations of peroxides were typically required to achieve the highest possible GMA grafting levels which were found to be generally low. Concomitantly, both poly-GMA and degradation of the polymer by chain scission takes place with increasing initiator amounts. On the other hand, the presence of a small amount of the comonomers, DVB or Tris, in the GMA-grafting system, was shown to bring about a significant increase in the grafting level paralleled by a large reduction in poly-GMA and PP degradation. In the presence of these highly reactive comonomers, the optimum grafting system requires a much lower concentration of the peroxide initiator and, consequently, would lead to the much lower degree of polymer degradation observed in these systems. The differences in the effects of the presence of DVB and that of TRIS in the grafting systems on the rate of the GMA-grafting and homopolymerisation reactions, and the extent of PP degradation (through melt flow changes), were compared and contrasted with a conventional GMA-grafting system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-362
Number of pages10
JournalPolymer Degradation and Stability
Volume95
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010

Fingerprint

Polypropylenes
polypropylene
divinyl benzene
Polymers
polymers
Processing
degradation
Benzene
Degradation
initiators
benzene
Peroxides
peroxides
Homopolymerization
glycidyl methacrylate
Free radicals
free radicals
Free Radicals
cleavage
low concentrations

Keywords

  • reactive processing
  • grafting GMA on PP
  • grafting with reactive comonomers

Cite this

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title = "Reactive processing of polymers: effect of bifunctional and tri-functional comonomers on melt grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto polypropylene",
abstract = "Two reactive comonomers, divinyl benzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TRIS), were evaluated for their role in effecting the melt free radical grafting reaction of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene (PP). The characteristics of the GMA-grafting systems in the presence and absence of DVB or TRIS were examined and compared in terms of the yield of the grafting reaction and the extent of the main side reactions, namely homopolymerisation of GMA (poly-GMA) and polymer degradation, using different chemical compositions of the reactive systems and processing conditions. In the absence of the comonomers, i.e. in a conventional system, high initiator concentrations of peroxides were typically required to achieve the highest possible GMA grafting levels which were found to be generally low. Concomitantly, both poly-GMA and degradation of the polymer by chain scission takes place with increasing initiator amounts. On the other hand, the presence of a small amount of the comonomers, DVB or Tris, in the GMA-grafting system, was shown to bring about a significant increase in the grafting level paralleled by a large reduction in poly-GMA and PP degradation. In the presence of these highly reactive comonomers, the optimum grafting system requires a much lower concentration of the peroxide initiator and, consequently, would lead to the much lower degree of polymer degradation observed in these systems. The differences in the effects of the presence of DVB and that of TRIS in the grafting systems on the rate of the GMA-grafting and homopolymerisation reactions, and the extent of PP degradation (through melt flow changes), were compared and contrasted with a conventional GMA-grafting system.",
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author = "Sahar Al-Malaika and Eddy Eddiyanto",
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year = "2010",
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language = "English",
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T1 - Reactive processing of polymers

T2 - effect of bifunctional and tri-functional comonomers on melt grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto polypropylene

AU - Al-Malaika, Sahar

AU - Eddiyanto, Eddy

N1 - Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2010/3

Y1 - 2010/3

N2 - Two reactive comonomers, divinyl benzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TRIS), were evaluated for their role in effecting the melt free radical grafting reaction of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene (PP). The characteristics of the GMA-grafting systems in the presence and absence of DVB or TRIS were examined and compared in terms of the yield of the grafting reaction and the extent of the main side reactions, namely homopolymerisation of GMA (poly-GMA) and polymer degradation, using different chemical compositions of the reactive systems and processing conditions. In the absence of the comonomers, i.e. in a conventional system, high initiator concentrations of peroxides were typically required to achieve the highest possible GMA grafting levels which were found to be generally low. Concomitantly, both poly-GMA and degradation of the polymer by chain scission takes place with increasing initiator amounts. On the other hand, the presence of a small amount of the comonomers, DVB or Tris, in the GMA-grafting system, was shown to bring about a significant increase in the grafting level paralleled by a large reduction in poly-GMA and PP degradation. In the presence of these highly reactive comonomers, the optimum grafting system requires a much lower concentration of the peroxide initiator and, consequently, would lead to the much lower degree of polymer degradation observed in these systems. The differences in the effects of the presence of DVB and that of TRIS in the grafting systems on the rate of the GMA-grafting and homopolymerisation reactions, and the extent of PP degradation (through melt flow changes), were compared and contrasted with a conventional GMA-grafting system.

AB - Two reactive comonomers, divinyl benzene (DVB) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TRIS), were evaluated for their role in effecting the melt free radical grafting reaction of the monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polypropylene (PP). The characteristics of the GMA-grafting systems in the presence and absence of DVB or TRIS were examined and compared in terms of the yield of the grafting reaction and the extent of the main side reactions, namely homopolymerisation of GMA (poly-GMA) and polymer degradation, using different chemical compositions of the reactive systems and processing conditions. In the absence of the comonomers, i.e. in a conventional system, high initiator concentrations of peroxides were typically required to achieve the highest possible GMA grafting levels which were found to be generally low. Concomitantly, both poly-GMA and degradation of the polymer by chain scission takes place with increasing initiator amounts. On the other hand, the presence of a small amount of the comonomers, DVB or Tris, in the GMA-grafting system, was shown to bring about a significant increase in the grafting level paralleled by a large reduction in poly-GMA and PP degradation. In the presence of these highly reactive comonomers, the optimum grafting system requires a much lower concentration of the peroxide initiator and, consequently, would lead to the much lower degree of polymer degradation observed in these systems. The differences in the effects of the presence of DVB and that of TRIS in the grafting systems on the rate of the GMA-grafting and homopolymerisation reactions, and the extent of PP degradation (through melt flow changes), were compared and contrasted with a conventional GMA-grafting system.

KW - reactive processing

KW - grafting GMA on PP

KW - grafting with reactive comonomers

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U2 - 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2009.11.006

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SN - 0141-3910

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