Synthesis of Carbon Onion and Its Application as a Porous Carrier for Amorphous Drug Delivery

Nikhila Miriyala, Daniel J. Kirby, Aude Cumont, Ruoying Zhang, Baogui Shi, Defang Ouyang, Haitao Ye

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Given the great potential of porous carrier-based drug delivery for stabilising the amorphous form of drugs and enhancing dissolution profiles, this work is focussed on the synthesis and application of carbon onion or onion-like carbon (OLC) as a porous carrier for oral amorphous drug delivery, using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. Annealing of nanodiamonds at 1100 °C produced OLC with a diamond core that exhibited low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. Solution adsorption followed by centrifugation was used for drug loading and results indicated that the initial concentration of drug in the loading solution needs to be kept below 11.5% PA and 20.7% IBU to achieve complete amorphous loading. Also, no chemical interactions between the drug and OLC could be detected, indicating the safety of loading into OLC without changing the chemical nature of the drug. Drug release was complete in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and was faster compared to the pure crystalline drug, indicating the potential of OLC as an amorphous drug carrier.
Original languageEnglish
Article number281
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
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  • Adsorption
  • Biocompatibility
  • Biomedical application
  • Nanodiamonds
  • Onion-like carbon


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