This study investigates the relationship between congestion charging and air pollution in four European cities - London, Edinburgh, Milan, and Rome - from 2010 to 2019. By comparing the air quality of cities with and without congestion charging policies, and factoring in population growth as a variable, the study assesses the impact of these policies on air pollution. The research analyzed government datasets and archival records from the specified period and concluded that there was no discernible difference in the relationships between the four cities. The study notes that population growth has a significant impact on some sources of air pollution, which can be mitigated by government policies and regulations. The air quality forecast for the cities by 2030 indicated that cities without policies for traffic congestion (Edinburgh and Milan) would experience deteriorating air quality, while cities with congestion mitigating policies would meet World Health Organization standards.
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 18 Jul 2023|
- traffic congestion, population growth, congestion charging, air pollution, ARIMA forecasting, air quality, air pollutant, WHO, European Union