The Gaming Problem: A Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Criteria For Internet Gaming Disorder In A Non-Clinical Sample

Jodie N. Raybould, Dylan C. Watling, Michael M. Larkin, Richard J. Tunney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In this study we aimed to test whether suggested DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) share a similar latent structure to formally recognised addiction. Methods: We used latent class analysis on a dichotomous measure of IGD. The data was collected from a convenient general population sample (500) and a targeted gaming forum sample (236). Results: We found a four or six-class model to be most appropriate, ranging from ‘ casual/non-gamer’ to ‘ potentially disordered’ with increasing symptom severity. The majority of ‘ potentially disordered’ gamers (5+ criteria) were found to be 18-30 years old, and no ‘ potentially disordered’ gamers were over 42. Conclusions: The results suggest that gaming may share a similar latent structure to established addictions, with adolescents and young adults being more at risk. Studies replicating these results would be beneficial, with further emphasis on a critical evaluation of the criteria and symptom cut-off point.

Original languageEnglish
Article number806
Number of pages16
Early online date20 Jul 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 Raybould J et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Funding Information:
Funding for this study comes from Aston University as part of a PhD Studentship for JR. Aston University were not involved in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of data, or in writing of the manuscript for this study.


  • Gaming
  • Internet Gaming Disorder
  • Pathological Gaming
  • Latent Class Analysis
  • Addiction
  • Behavioral Addiction


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