Treatment of ocular allergies: nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic and immunotherapy

Paramdeep Bilkhu, Shehzad Naroo, James Wolffsohn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ocular allergy is a significant and growing issue worldwide but for many patients, it is often not differentiated from systemic conditions, such as hay fever. Management of seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis is often poor. Management is principally through avoidance measures (blocking or hygiene), nonpharmaceutical (such as artificial tears and cold compresses) and pharmaceutical (such as topical antihistamines and prophylactic mast cell stabilizers). Vernal and atopic keratoconjunctivitis are more severe and generally need treatment with NSAIDs, steroids and immunomodulators. Giant papillary conjunctivitis can be related to allergy but also is often contact lens related and in such cases can be managed by a period of abstinence and replacement of the lens or a change in lens material and/or design. Immunotherapy can be efficacious in severe, persistent cases of contact lens or allergic conjunctivitis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-266
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Early online date12 Apr 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • antihistamine
  • atopic keratoconjunctivitis
  • giant papillary conjunctivitis
  • immunotherapy
  • mast cell stabilizer
  • ocular allergy
  • perennial allergic conjunctivitis
  • seasonal allergic conjunctivitis
  • vernal keratoconjunctivitis


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