Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines

Yoko Hirohara, Toshifumi Mihashi, Tomomitsu Miyoshi, Suguru Miyagawa, Hiroyuki Kanda, Hajime Sawai, Takashi Fujikado, Thomas Drew, James Stuart Wolffsohn

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting abstract

Abstract

Purpose: We have reported that the changes in the pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. (Miyagawa et al. PLoS One, 2014). This study investigates the changes in the pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulations of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines.

Methods: Two enucleated eyes of two cats and three enucleated porcine eyes were studied. Trains of biphasic pulses (current, 3 mA; duration, 2 ms/phase; frequency, 40 Hz) were applied using a tungsten electrode (0.3mm diameter). The stimulation was performed at every 45 degree over the entire circular region on the sclera near the cornea. The pupillary images were recorded before and 4 s (cat) and 10 s (pig) after the stimulation and the change in the pupil diameter (Δr) was quantified. The pupillary images were obtained with a custom-built compact wavefront aberrometer (Uday et al. J Cataract Refract Surg, 2013).

Results: In a cat eye, the pupil was dilated by the electrical stimulation at six out of eight orientations (before stimulation pupil diameter r=10.10±0.49 mm, Δr=0.33±0.12 mm). The pupil dilated only toward the electrode (relative eccentricity of the pupil center to the pupil diameter change amount rdec=1.15±0.28). In the porcine eyes, the pupils were constricted by the electrical stimulations at the temporal and nasal orientations (r=10.04±0.57 mm, Δr=1.52±0.70 mm). The pupils contracted symmetrically (rdec=0.30±0.12).

Conclusions: With electrical stimulation in the sclera of the peripheral cornea, asymmetric mydriasis in cat eyes and symmetrical miosis in porcine eyes were observed. Under the assumption that the electrical stimulation stimulated both muscles that contribute to the pupil control, our hypothesis proposed here is that the pupil dilator is stronger than the pupil sphincter in cat, and pupil sphincter is stronger than pupil dilator in porcine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3374
Number of pages1
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume56
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015

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Sclera
Pupil
Cornea
Electric Stimulation
Cats
Swine
Miosis
Electrodes
Mydriasis
Tungsten
Nose
Cataract

Bibliographical note

Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO)

Cite this

Hirohara, Yoko ; Mihashi, Toshifumi ; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu ; Miyagawa, Suguru ; Kanda, Hiroyuki ; Sawai, Hajime ; Fujikado, Takashi ; Drew, Thomas ; Wolffsohn, James Stuart. / Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2015 ; Vol. 56, No. 7. pp. 3374.
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title = "Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines",
abstract = "Purpose: We have reported that the changes in the pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. (Miyagawa et al. PLoS One, 2014). This study investigates the changes in the pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulations of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines.Methods: Two enucleated eyes of two cats and three enucleated porcine eyes were studied. Trains of biphasic pulses (current, 3 mA; duration, 2 ms/phase; frequency, 40 Hz) were applied using a tungsten electrode (0.3mm diameter). The stimulation was performed at every 45 degree over the entire circular region on the sclera near the cornea. The pupillary images were recorded before and 4 s (cat) and 10 s (pig) after the stimulation and the change in the pupil diameter (Δr) was quantified. The pupillary images were obtained with a custom-built compact wavefront aberrometer (Uday et al. J Cataract Refract Surg, 2013).Results: In a cat eye, the pupil was dilated by the electrical stimulation at six out of eight orientations (before stimulation pupil diameter r=10.10±0.49 mm, Δr=0.33±0.12 mm). The pupil dilated only toward the electrode (relative eccentricity of the pupil center to the pupil diameter change amount rdec=1.15±0.28). In the porcine eyes, the pupils were constricted by the electrical stimulations at the temporal and nasal orientations (r=10.04±0.57 mm, Δr=1.52±0.70 mm). The pupils contracted symmetrically (rdec=0.30±0.12).Conclusions: With electrical stimulation in the sclera of the peripheral cornea, asymmetric mydriasis in cat eyes and symmetrical miosis in porcine eyes were observed. Under the assumption that the electrical stimulation stimulated both muscles that contribute to the pupil control, our hypothesis proposed here is that the pupil dilator is stronger than the pupil sphincter in cat, and pupil sphincter is stronger than pupil dilator in porcine.",
author = "Yoko Hirohara and Toshifumi Mihashi and Tomomitsu Miyoshi and Suguru Miyagawa and Hiroyuki Kanda and Hajime Sawai and Takashi Fujikado and Thomas Drew and Wolffsohn, {James Stuart}",
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Hirohara, Y, Mihashi, T, Miyoshi, T, Miyagawa, S, Kanda, H, Sawai, H, Fujikado, T, Drew, T & Wolffsohn, JS 2015, 'Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 3374.

Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines. / Hirohara, Yoko; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Miyagawa, Suguru; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Sawai, Hajime; Fujikado, Takashi; Drew, Thomas; Wolffsohn, James Stuart.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 56, No. 7, 06.2015, p. 3374.

Research output: Contribution to journalMeeting abstract

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulation of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines

AU - Hirohara, Yoko

AU - Mihashi, Toshifumi

AU - Miyoshi, Tomomitsu

AU - Miyagawa, Suguru

AU - Kanda, Hiroyuki

AU - Sawai, Hajime

AU - Fujikado, Takashi

AU - Drew, Thomas

AU - Wolffsohn, James Stuart

N1 - Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO)

PY - 2015/6

Y1 - 2015/6

N2 - Purpose: We have reported that the changes in the pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. (Miyagawa et al. PLoS One, 2014). This study investigates the changes in the pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulations of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines.Methods: Two enucleated eyes of two cats and three enucleated porcine eyes were studied. Trains of biphasic pulses (current, 3 mA; duration, 2 ms/phase; frequency, 40 Hz) were applied using a tungsten electrode (0.3mm diameter). The stimulation was performed at every 45 degree over the entire circular region on the sclera near the cornea. The pupillary images were recorded before and 4 s (cat) and 10 s (pig) after the stimulation and the change in the pupil diameter (Δr) was quantified. The pupillary images were obtained with a custom-built compact wavefront aberrometer (Uday et al. J Cataract Refract Surg, 2013).Results: In a cat eye, the pupil was dilated by the electrical stimulation at six out of eight orientations (before stimulation pupil diameter r=10.10±0.49 mm, Δr=0.33±0.12 mm). The pupil dilated only toward the electrode (relative eccentricity of the pupil center to the pupil diameter change amount rdec=1.15±0.28). In the porcine eyes, the pupils were constricted by the electrical stimulations at the temporal and nasal orientations (r=10.04±0.57 mm, Δr=1.52±0.70 mm). The pupils contracted symmetrically (rdec=0.30±0.12).Conclusions: With electrical stimulation in the sclera of the peripheral cornea, asymmetric mydriasis in cat eyes and symmetrical miosis in porcine eyes were observed. Under the assumption that the electrical stimulation stimulated both muscles that contribute to the pupil control, our hypothesis proposed here is that the pupil dilator is stronger than the pupil sphincter in cat, and pupil sphincter is stronger than pupil dilator in porcine.

AB - Purpose: We have reported that the changes in the pupillary shape in response to electrical stimulation of the branches of the ciliary nerves in cats. (Miyagawa et al. PLoS One, 2014). This study investigates the changes in the pupillary shapes in response to electrical stimulations of the sclera of peripheral cornea in cats and porcines.Methods: Two enucleated eyes of two cats and three enucleated porcine eyes were studied. Trains of biphasic pulses (current, 3 mA; duration, 2 ms/phase; frequency, 40 Hz) were applied using a tungsten electrode (0.3mm diameter). The stimulation was performed at every 45 degree over the entire circular region on the sclera near the cornea. The pupillary images were recorded before and 4 s (cat) and 10 s (pig) after the stimulation and the change in the pupil diameter (Δr) was quantified. The pupillary images were obtained with a custom-built compact wavefront aberrometer (Uday et al. J Cataract Refract Surg, 2013).Results: In a cat eye, the pupil was dilated by the electrical stimulation at six out of eight orientations (before stimulation pupil diameter r=10.10±0.49 mm, Δr=0.33±0.12 mm). The pupil dilated only toward the electrode (relative eccentricity of the pupil center to the pupil diameter change amount rdec=1.15±0.28). In the porcine eyes, the pupils were constricted by the electrical stimulations at the temporal and nasal orientations (r=10.04±0.57 mm, Δr=1.52±0.70 mm). The pupils contracted symmetrically (rdec=0.30±0.12).Conclusions: With electrical stimulation in the sclera of the peripheral cornea, asymmetric mydriasis in cat eyes and symmetrical miosis in porcine eyes were observed. Under the assumption that the electrical stimulation stimulated both muscles that contribute to the pupil control, our hypothesis proposed here is that the pupil dilator is stronger than the pupil sphincter in cat, and pupil sphincter is stronger than pupil dilator in porcine.

M3 - Meeting abstract

VL - 56

SP - 3374

JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

JF - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

SN - 1552-5783

IS - 7

ER -